From Nikonians Wiki
Geometric rule which affects correct focus of view cameras with tilt-shift movements. Three planes are of concern when focusing a view camera: that of the image (at the film/sensor), the lens plane and the subject plane. If these three planes are precisely parallel to one another then a focused image will appear sharp across the entire image area. Tilting one of these planes will result in the area in focus changing. The image area will be in focus only at the point where the three planes intersect. Although the French builder of scientific instruments Jules Carpentier (1851-1921) was the first to enunciate it, the rule is named after Austrian army officer Theodor Scheimpflug (1865-1911).
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